Journal of Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome (JDMMS)
Department Of Global Health Management And Policy
Giuseppe Maurizio Campo
Department Of Experimental And Clinical Medicine
University Of Messina
Department Of Endocrinology, Physiology
University Hospital of Montpellier
Diabetes is otherwise known as Diabetes mellitus (DM), is a group of metabolic diseases in which there will be high blood sugar levels over a long period. Some of high blood sugar includes increased thirst, increased hunger and frequent urination. If proper treatment is not taken diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications because of diabetes are nonketotic hyperosmolar coma and diabetic ketoacidosis. Serious long-term complications are damage to the eyes, foot ulcers, cardiovascular and chronic kidney failure. The reasons of Diabetes are either the pancreas is not being able to produce sufficient insulin required or the body cells are not responding properly to the produced insulin.
There are three key Types of diabetes mellitus
- Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”
- Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”
- Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
Healthy diet, avoiding consumption of tobacco, physical exercise and maintaining a normal body weight, control of blood pressure are few things which can help you stay away from diabetes.
We appreciate articles in the nature of research & review, case reports, short notes as well as commentaries on relevant topics related to Diabetes & Metabolism. We accept the articles if they meet the scientific standards and have undergone peer review without compromising the quality of journal.
Childhood Diabetes / Type 1 Diabetes
Childhood diabetes is otherwise known as juvenile diabetes or Type 1 Diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not create insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose, or sugar to get into your cells to give them energy. In the absence of insulin, too much sugar stays in the blood. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults. Children who are suffering from juvenile diabetes need the below to maintain a good health
- Lifelong insulin injections
- Blood sugar monitoring
- Change in diet may be needed
Currently there is no prevention for Type 1 diabetes, but researchers and scientist are working aggressively for prevention of Type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes happens only when our body can’t use produced insulin the right way or when our pancreas can’t make sufficient insulin. It often affects people who are not physically active and overweight.
Insulin helps glucose (sugar) move out from the blood and get into the body’s cells, where it is used for energy. Without insulin, sugar can’t get into the cells, and sugar in blood gets too high. Over time, high blood sugar can lead to problems with our heart, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, and kidneys.
Diabetes can be managed by eating a balanced diet and regular exercise and medicines.
Our body actually needs some cholesterol, many people have too much of the bad kind and not enough of the good Type. Over a period of time, that can result plaque in your arteries, leaving less space for blood to flow. Blocked heart vessels can result chest pain or heart attack. The “good” Type HDL (High-density lipoprotein) cholesterol helps your body get rid of the “bad” Type of LDL (Low-density lipoprotein). Higher HDL level is better but higher LDL levels leads to diabetes and heart disease.
Complications of Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia is a result of low blood sugar. Over time, repeated episodes of hypoglycemia leads to hypoglycemia unawareness. The body and brain do not produce signs and symptoms that warn of a low blood sugar, such as irregular heartbeats or shakiness. When this happens, the risk of severe, life-threatening hypoglycemia is increased. Need to diagnose the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia early and if untreated Hypoglycemia can lead to Seizure, Loss of consciousness or Death. Severe low blood sugar is considered as a medical emergency.
Advances in Diabetes Cure
Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) is a new wearable technology which tracks calories throughout the day and night and assists people suffering due to Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.
The number of people with diabetes has increased from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 as per world health organization (WHO). Globally the number of cases of diabetes among adults over 18 years of age has increased from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014. Numbers of people suffering from Diabetes are more in middle and low income countries. In 2012, an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly because of diabetes and another 2.2 million deaths were because of high blood glucose. Almost half of all deaths before the age of 70 years occur due to high blood glucose. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th primary cause of death by 2030.
Pathophysiology of Diabetes
In a normal person the hormone insulin, which regulates how much glucose is in the blood, is made by the beta cells of the pancreas. If there is excess of glucose in blood, insulin stimulates cells to absorb required glucose from the blood for the energy they need. In this situation the immune system may attack and destroy the beta cells of the pancreas that produces insulin. Ultimately beta cell deficiency may lead to complete insulin deficiency. In an autoimmune disease termed as ITIS, there are anti-islet cell antibodies or anti insulin present in blood. These cause destruction of pancreas islets and lymphocytic infiltration. These cause destruction of the pancreas islets and lymphocytic infiltration. This destruction may take time but the onset of the disease is rapid and which may occur over a few days to weeks. Destruction may take time but the disease grows rapidly and may occur over a few days to weeks.
Obesity and Diabetes
Being overweight results extra stress on our body in a variety of ways, in addition to that body will not be able to maintain proper blood glucose levels. Being overweight will cause your body to become resistant to the effect of insulin. If you have already diabetes, then you need to take even more insulin to get sugar into your body cells. And if you don’t have diabetes, the prolonged effects of the insulin resistance will eventually cause you to develop the disease. Study shows almost 90% of people living with Type 2 diabetes have obesity or overweight.
Diabetes and Weight Loss
Cutting back on just single meal can affect the delicate balance of blood sugar, insulin, and medication in our body. So it’s important to check with an expert when we go for diet. Unexplained or unintentional weight loss can be caused by numerous things, including depression, certain medication and diabetes. People with diabetes have insufficient insulin which prevents their body from getting glucose from the blood into the body’s cells and when this occurs, body starts burning the fat and muscle for energy, which causes a reduction in overall body weight.
Diabetes and Alcohol
Alcohol increase blood sugar in the body. Alcohol contains a lot of calories. You can take alcohol occasionally if diabetes and blood sugar level are well-controlled. If you are following a calorie-controlled diet plan, one drink of alcohol should be counted as two fat exchanges. Here are some other ways that alcohol can affect diabetes:
- Alcohol stimulates your appetite, which may cause you to overeat and increase the blood sugar level.
- Beer and sweet wine increases blood sugar as it contains carbohydrates.
- Alcohol may increase blood pressure.
- Alcohol will increase triglyceride levels.
- Alcohol can interfere with the positive effects of oral diabetes medicines or insulin.
- Alcohol can cause nausea, flushing, increased heart rate and slurred speech
Diabetes Lipid Metabolism
There is a direct relationship between high lipid levels in the bloodstream and diabetes. Persons with diabetes should be always stay aware of this connection and seek to maintain healthy triglyceride and cholesterol numbers. Cholesterol and triglycerolare the only two Types of lipids present in the body which is used for its functioning. The only means to lower both blood lipids and blood glucose level are daily exercise and a healthy diet.
Cholesterol is a very waxy substance, which is not readily soluble in water as only fewer amounts can dissolve into the (water-based) bloodstream. Cholesterol compound needs some assistance to pass through, the help comes in the form of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are biochemical assembly of both proteins and lipids, where lipids are bound to protein, which allows them to move freely through the water inside and outside of the cells.
A triglyceride is composed of glycerol and three Types of fatty acids, these elements can be metabolized by which energy can be created for cells in the body.
Reversing diabetes is a term normally used to describe interventions that helps to reduce dependency on medications, effectively reversing progression of the illness in case of Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes can be reversed by loss of body weight and the results can be fruitful with less tiredness and better all-round health. In some cases, people may find they are not dependent on medication. Blood sugar levels should be checked in regular interval as reversing progression of diabetes is not a cure.