Your research finding is unique in nature, and it reflects the effort and time you spend on your research. Proper presentation is necessary to show your Eureka invention to the world. Whether you use a written or oral form of communication, a well-structured flow adds value to your research work. A well-constructed manuscript must include three components.
- The overall idea it wants to reflect,
- The execution of the work, and
- Proper presentation of the work.
Each of the above point has its own importance. If the idea is poor and the investigation has not been done properly, a good presentation cannot add value to your manuscript. Similarly, if the presentation is good but the idea or investigation is poor, the manuscript will fail to create any impact.
Structure and Approach: We mentioned above that every manuscript should have a proper structure. A well-structured manuscript must include the following components.
Components of a manuscript
- Title Page
- Declaration of Conflicting Interest
- Table and Table Captions
- Figure and Figure Captions
Approach: A scientific manuscript should be approached in the following way for better impact.
- First include a research methodology in the Methods section. The research methodology is derived from your initial research protocol or from your research experiment itself to include all the details.
- Design all the figures and tables that contain the data included in the work.
- Write the Results section considering the type of study; presentation of data and writing of text involves multiple iterations.
- Reconsider the scientific questions the manuscript will address, again referring to your research protocol, and then write the Introduction.
- Next step uses the Introduction and Results sections to guide the writing of the Discussion section.
- Need to summarize everything in an Abstract, and then condense and refocus the Abstract into a Conclusions section.
The above approach is not a standardized approach, the author may follow a different approach till the approach is able to design and present the manuscript in a better way. Following sections provide a brief discussion on each structural component of a manuscript. It may be helpful to get an overall idea about each component of the structure.
Title Page: A title page states the title of the manuscript, and the title should be short and simple. This page should include author names and affiliations. In addition, indicate the journal to which the manuscript is being submitted. The journal name must be mentioned on the title page. The author needs to provide approximately 5 keywords, as well as a short title (may be referred as a running title) for the manuscript. At the end, the author needs to provide complete contact information for the corresponding author.
Abstract: The first sentence of abstract must reflect the objective of the experiment or study. If the experiment is based upon a hypothesis, which is generally preferred, the hypothesis should be stated and followed with statements describing its basis and evaluation. The following sentences should describe procedure of the investigation. The subsequent sentences should state the results of the experiment in limited words. The final sentences should describe the significance of the results and the impact of this work or experiment on the general field of study. Abstract must be within 150-200 words.
Introduction: The introduction requires a short review of the literature pertaining to the research topic. The introduction is then best constructed as a descriptive funnel, starting with broad topics and slowly focusing on the work at hand. Three to four paragraphs may be needed in the introduction part. One approach may be to start with one or two paragraphs which introduce the reader to the general field of study. The following paragraphs should describe how an aspect of this field could be improved. The final paragraph is vital. It clearly states, most likely in the first sentence of the paragraph, what experimental question will be addressed by the present study i.e. it highlights the research gap and research question. The hypothesis is then stated. Next, briefly describe the approach to test the hypothesis. Finally, a summary sentence can be added stating how the answer to your question will contribute to the overall field of study.
Methods: The method used in the study must be included in this part of the structure. If a study uses multiple methods, each method should be described in separate section. In a single section, the materials used in the study should be included indicating the vendor and vendor contact information for each material. This information is vital for readers to help them understand where they can repeat the research work, in their own institution or whichever place may be required. Next describe, in separate sections, each procedure and technique used in the study. Keep explanations concise and brief. If a specific experimental design is being utilized, describe this design in the second section of the Methods after mentioning the materials section. In some experiments, a theoretical or a modeling component may be utilized, and the same needs to be included in the initial portion of the method. Finally, describe statistical-analysis methods and tools utilized to analyze the results, most likely in the final section of the Methods section. It is better to use active voice in the methods section.
Results: This section is not a place where discussion or interpretation can be done. Result section presents the experimental data to the reader. The data itself should be presented in tables and figures (see below in table and figure section). Introduce each group of tables and figures in a separate paragraph where the overall trends and data points of interest are noted. You may like to indicate the placement of the table or figure in the text. For studies which are experimental in nature, key statistics such as the number of samples (n), the index of central tendency (mean, median or mode), and the index of dispersion (SD, SEM) must be stated. Any statistical analysis performed must be included and need to indicate specific statistical data, such as p-values. It is a thumb rule to refer each table and figure in the Results section.
Discussion: The discussion section, often considered very difficult to write, should be relatively easy to write if the previous suggestions are followed. In particular, look to the last paragraph of the introduction. If the work has characterized a phenomenon by studying specific effects, use the results to describe each effect in different paragraphs. The work may have presented by using a hypothesis, use the results to construct a logical argument that supports or rejects your hypothesis. If the work has identified three main objectives for the work, use the results to address each of these objectives. The construction of the discussion depends on the introduction and result sections. A well-defined study that is described in the Introduction along with supporting results that are presented in the Results section helps in the construction of the discussion section.
Start the Discussion section with a brief paragraph that again gives an overview of the work. Need to summarize the most important findings and, if applicable, accept or reject the proposed hypothesis. Next, recognize the most significant, interesting, remarkable findings that were presented in the Results section, and contrast these research findings considering other studies reported in the literature. If a discussion on the potential weaknesses of the interpretation is included, it is considered as informative. Finally, at the end of the Discussion section, the author needs to consider other research works in the literature that address this topic and how the present work contributes to the overall field of study.
Conclusions: This section defines how the research work contributes to the overall field of study. There are four steps to construct the conclusion part. First, introduce the work and then briefly state the major results. Then mention the major points of the discussion. Finally, conclude with a statement, how this work contributes to the overall field of study.
Acknowledgments: There may be some participants or consultant who may not be considered as an author in the manuscript, the author need to provide a brief statement acknowledging such efforts in this section.
Declaration of Conflicting Interest: Author are required to mention a statement of their conflict of interest under this section. For details please visit our policies and ethics page.
Funding: The author needs to mention the source of funding under the heading “Funding” after the Acknowledgement and Declaration of Conflicting Interest, and author needs to ensure that the statement adheres to the guidelines provided by the funding institution.
Kindly check the below example for your reference:
This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research [Grant No. XX-XX-XXXXX]
It may happen the research work is funded by multiple grants from one agency. Multiple grant numbers from one agency should be separated by comma and space. See the following example:
This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research [Grant No. XX-XX-XXXXX, YY-YY-YYYYY]
It may also happen the research was supported by more than one agency, the different agencies should be separated by a semi-colon, with “and” before the final funder. For example:
This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research [Grant No. ZZ-ZZ-ZZZZZ]; and by Belarusian Republican Foundation for Fundamental Research [Grant XXXX-XXX]
The research work might not be funded by any source and in those cases, we request the author to use the following sentence. (Default)
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit organization.
References: Need to mention all the references used in the text. The references need to be well considered so that they must contain all key sources in the field as well as previous studies that support and motivate the current work. However, one should not use extraneous references in an effort to simply cite particular authors or journals. It may be appropriate to cite previous publications from your own laboratory, but this should be done judiciously. You should use Vancouver Referencing format, which is mandatory for all our journals.
Surname Initial(s). Article title. Title of journal with standard abbreviation. Date of publication; Volume(number): Page.
NOTE: Author(s) can search the details and abbreviations of journal titles at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db-journals
In a reference list examples
- Zhang H, Berezov A, Wang Q, Zhang G, Drebin J, Murali R et al. ErbB receptors: from oncogenes to targeted cancer therapies. J Clin Invest. 2007;117(8):2051-58.
- Jackson D, Firtko A, Edenborough M. Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. J Adv Nurs [serial online]. 2007;60(1):1-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.13652648.2007.04412.x
- Enkin M, Keirse MJ, Chalmers I, Enkin E. A guide to effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1995.
Chapter or Article in Edited Book
- Mayer EL, Winer EP. Adjuvant systemic therapy: chemotherapy. In: Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK, (eds.) Diseases of the breast. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. p. 631-44.
- Walker P. Three jailed for arson attack over Muhammad bride novel. The Guardian News. 2009 Jul 7.
- Wentworth WC. Why we need a permanent base on the moon [Internet]. The Sydney Morning Herald. 1984 Jan 24;11. Available from: Sydney Morning Herald Archive
Articles on Internet
- Cooper D. Native ant may stop toad in its tracks. ABC Science [Internet]. 2009 March 31 [cited 2009 April 2]. Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2009/03/31/2530686.htm ?site=science&topic=latest
Proceeding of meetings and symposiums, Conference papers
- Emanuel K, Nolan DS. Tropical cyclone activity and the global climate system. In26th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorolgy 2004.
- Lakhani S, Ellis I, Schnitt S, Tan P, van de Vijver M. WHO classification of tumours of the breast. 4th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012 [cited 2017 January10]. Available from: https://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/pat-gen/bb4/BB4.pdf
In text Citation Examples
The cancer research has gained traction due to new instruments.9
As suggested by the research findings suggest. 5,6
Consequently, it weakens the response to paclitaxel treatment. 35-39
Tables and Table Captions: Tables are generally included in a separate section after the References section. Each table must be headed with a caption and title in bold (e.g. Table 2: Material Properties), followed by one or two sentences that describe the content and impact of the data included in the table. The table should be as simple as possible which will be easy for the reviewer to understand. Make sure that each table referred in the manuscript text will most likely to occur in the Results section, but it may also occur in the Introduction, Methods, or Discussion sections.
Figures and Figure Captions: The author need to present the figures in a separate section after the reference section with the tables. The importance should be given to clarity. The images should be as large as possible and must include accurate scale bars. The graphs must be large, with data points and axis labels in a large font. Legends may be included within the graph or in the caption. All figures need a caption. The caption should identify the figure in bold (i.e., Figure 2), mention a brief title to the figure, succinctly present the significant result or interpretation that can be made from the figure (this may be modified from the Results or Discussion section text), and finally mention the number of repetitions within the experiment (i.e., n=5) as well as what the data point represents (e.g. the data are the means and the associated error bars represent standard deviations).
Note- We are committed to provide genuine research to the world, and we do not encourage plagiarism, duplicate submission, or republication of articles. The corresponding author needs to sign a declaration regarding the originality of the manuscript at the time of submission. Any concealment of the above information may lead to cancellation of the article with a notice to the author. However, there are special cases where we accept republication of the article . For details check republication guidelines page. We also recommend you to visit our journal policies and ethics page.