Your research finding is unique in nature and reflects the effort and time you spend on your research. Proper presentation is very much necessary to show your Eureka invention to the world. Whether it is a written communication or oral communication a well-structured communication adds value to your research work. A well-constructed manuscript must include three component.

  • The overall idea it wants to reflect
  • The execution of the work
  • Proper presentation of the work.

Each of the above point has its own importance. If the idea is poor and the investigation has not been done properly then a good presentation cannot add value to your manuscript. Same way if the presentation is good but the idea or investigation is poor then the manuscript does not create any impact.

Structure and Approach We have already mentioned on the above that every manuscript should be well structured. A well-structured manuscript must include the following component in the same.

Components of manuscripts

  • Title Page
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • Declaration of Conflicting Interest
  • Funding
  • References
  • Tables and Table Captions
  • Figure and Figure Captions

Approach: A scientific manuscript can be approached in the following way for better impact.

  • First include the Methods section which is derived from your initial research protocol, and may be during the experimental phase of the work itself so that all details are included.
  • Design all of the figures and tables that contain the data included in the work.
  • Write the Results section considering the type of study, there may be some iteration in the presentation of the data and writing of the text.
  • Reconsider the scientific questions the manuscript will address, again referring to your research protocol, and then write the Introduction.
  • Next, step would use the Introduction and Results to guide the writing of the Discussion.
  • Need to summarize everything in an Abstract, and then condense and refocus the Abstract into a Conclusions section.

The above approach is not a standardized approach, the author may follow a different approach till the approach is able to design and present the manuscript in a better way. The below are brief discussion of each component of the structure. It may be helpful to get an overall idea about each component of the structure.

Title Page: A title page states the title of the manuscript and should be short and simple. It should include authors and author affiliations. Indicate the journal to which the manuscript is being submitted. The journal name must be mentioned on the title page. The author needs to provide approximately 5 key words, as well as a short title (may be referred as a running title) for the manuscript. At last, need to provide complete contact information for the corresponding author.

Abstract: The first sentence of abstract must reflect the objective of the experiment or study. If the experiment is based upon a hypothesis, which is generally preferred, the hypothesis should be stated and followed with statements describing its basis and evaluation. The next sentences describe how the investigation was carried out. The subsequent sentence should state the results of the experiment in very limited words. The final sentences describe the significance of the results and the impact of this work or experiment on the general field of study. Abstract must be within 150-200 Words.

Introduction: The introduction requires a short review of the literature pertaining to the research topic. The introduction is then best constructed as a descriptive funnel, starting with broad topics and slowly focusing on the work at hand. Three to four paragraphs may be needed in the introduction part. One approach may be to start with one or two paragraphs which introduce the reader to the general field of study. The next paragraphs then describe how an aspect of this field could be improved. The final paragraph is vital. It clearly states, most likely in the first sentence of the paragraph, what experimental question will be addressed by the present study. The hypothesis is then stated. Next, briefly describe the approach that was taken to test the hypothesis. Finally, a summary sentence can be added stating how the answer to your question will contribute to the overall field of study.

Methods: The method used in the study must be included in this part of the structure. Different section must be used to describe each method used. In a single section, the materials used in the study should be included indicating the vendor and vendor contact information for each material. This information is vital so that readers will come to know where they can repeat the research work, in their own institution or whichever place may be required. Next describe, in separate sections, each procedure and technique used in the study. Keep explanations concise and brief. If a specific experimental design is being utilized, describe this design in the second section of the Methods, after mentioning the materials section. In some experiments, a theoretical or modeling component may be utilized and the same need to be included in the initial portion of the method. Finally describe statistical analysis method utilized to analyze the results, most likely in the final section of the Methods section. It will be better to use active voice in the method section.

Results: This section is not a place where discussion or interpretation can be done. Result section presents the experimental data to the reader. The data itself should be presented in tables and figures (see below in table and figure section). Introduce each group of tables and figures in a separate paragraph where the overall trends and data points of particular interest are noted. You may like to indicate the placement of a particular table or figure in the text. For studies which are experimental in nature, key statistics such as the number of samples (n), the index of central tendency (mean, median or mode) and the index of dispersion (SD, SEM) must be stated. Any statistical analysis performed must be included and need to indicate specific statistical data, such as p-values. It is a thumb rule to refer each table and figure in the Results section.

Discussion: The discussion section, often considered very difficult to write, should be relatively easy if the previous suggestions have been followed. In particular, look to the last paragraph of the introduction. If the work has characterized a phenomenon by studying specific effects, use the results to describe each effect in different paragraphs. The work may have presented by using a hypothesis, use the results to construct a logical argument that supports or rejects your hypothesis. If the work has identified three main objectives for the work, use the results to address each of these objectives.  The construction of the discussion depends on the introduction and result section. A well-defined study that is described in the Introduction, along with supporting results that are presented in the Results section, will be helpful for the construction of the discussion section.

Start the Discussion section with a brief paragraph that again gives an overview of the work. Need to summarize the most important findings and, if applicable, accept or reject the proposed hypothesis. Next, recognize the most significant, interesting, remarkable findings that were presented in the Results section, and contrast these research findings in light of other studies reported in the literature. If a discussion of the potential weaknesses of the interpretation is included it is considered as informative. Finally, at the end of the Discussion section, need to consider the other works in the literature that address this topic and how this work contributes to the overall field of study.

Conclusions: This section defines how the research work contributes to the overall field of study. There are four steps to construct the conclusion part. First, introduce the work and then briefly state the major results. Then mention the major points of the discussion. Finally, conclude with a statement, how this work contributes to the overall field of study.

Acknowledgments: There may be some participants or consultant who may not be considered as an author in the manuscript, the author need to provide a brief statement acknowledging the efforts in this section.

Declaration of Conflicting Interest: Author are required to mention a statement of their conflict of interest under this section. For details please visit our policies and ethics page.

Funding: The author is also required to mention the source of funding under the heading “funding” after the  Acknowledgement and Declaration of Conflicting Interest and author need to ensure that the statement adheres to the guidelines provided by the funding institution.

Kindly check the  below example for your reference:

This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research [Grant No. XX-XX-XXXXX]

It may happen the research work is funded by multiple grants from one agency. Multiple grant numbers from one agency should be separated by comma and space. see the following example:

This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research [Grant No. XX-XX-XXXXX, YY-YY-YYYYY]

It may also happen the research was supported by more than one agency, the different agencies should be separated by a semi-colon, with “and” before the final funder. Thus:

This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research [Grant No. ZZ-ZZ-ZZZZZ]; and by Belarusian Republican Foundation for Fundamental Research [Grant XXXX-XXX]

The research work might not be funded by any source and in those cases we request the author to use the following sentence. (Default)

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit organization.

References: Need to mention all the references used in the text. The references need to be well considered so that they must contain all key sources in the field as well as previous studies that support or motivate the current work. However, need not to include extraneous references in an effort to simply cite particular authors or journals. It may be appropriate to cite previous publications from your own laboratory, but this should be done judiciously. You should use Vancouver Referencing format, which is mandatory for all our journals.


Surname Initial(s). Article title. Title of journal with standard abbreviation. Date of publication;Volume(number):Page.

In a reference list

Smith L, Lano K. Visibility aids for cyclists: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Anals Of Accid . 2001;24(2):256-65.

In text


Tables and Table Captions: Tables are generally included in a separate section after the References section. The tables must be headed with a caption and title in bold (i.e., Table 2: Material Properties), followed by one or two sentences that describe the content and impact of the data included in the table. The table should be as simple as possible which will be easy for the reviewer to understand. Make sure that each table referred in the manuscript text; will most likely to occur in the Results section, but it may also occur in the Introduction, Methods, or Discussion sections.

Figures and Figure Captions: The author need to present the figures in a separate section after the reference section with the tables. The importance should be given to clarity. The images should be as large as possible and must include accurate scale bars. The graphs must be large, with data points and axis labels in a large font. Legends may be included within the graph or in the caption. All figures need a caption. The caption should identify the figure in bold (i.e., Figure 2), mention a brief title to the figure, succinctly present the significant result or interpretation that can be made from the figure (this may be modified from the Results or Discussion section text), and finally mention the number of repetitions within the experiment (i.e., n=5) as well as what the data point actually represents (i.e., the data are means and the associated error bars represent standard deviations).


Note- We are committed to provide genuine research to the world, and we do not encourage plagiarism, duplicate submission or republication of articles. The corresponding author needs to sign a declaration regarding the originality of the manuscript at the time of submission. Any concealment of the above information may lead to cancellation of the article with a notice to the author. However, there are special cases where we accept republication of the article . For details check republication guidelines page. We also recommend you to visit our journal policies and ethics page.